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Map-a-Planet: Data Sets

This page describes the data sets available on Map-a-Planet. Use the following links to jump down the page to that section.


Mercury Data Sets

The following table lists available Mercury data set(s). Select the desired dataset for additional description.

Available Mercury Data Sets (highest resolution indicated)
Data Set Resolution
px/deg
Scale
m/px
Messenger MDIS & Mariner 10 Mosaic 85.172 500

Messenger MDIS & Mariner 10 Mosaic

Start mapping Mercury with the MDIS/Mariner 10 image data set

MESSENGER (MErcury Surface, Space ENvironment, GEochemistry, and Ranging) launched from Cape Canaveral Air Force Station, Fla., on August 3, 2004. It returned to Earth for a gravity boost on August 2, 2005, and flew past Venus twice, in October 2006 and June 2007. The spacecraft uses the tug of Venus' gravity to resize and rotate its trajectory closer to Mercury's orbit.

Three Mercury flybys, each followed about two months later by a course correction maneuver, will put MESSENGER in position to enter Mercury orbit in March 2011. During the January 2008, October 2008, and September 2009 flybys, MESSENGER mapped nearly the entire planet and imaged most of the areas unseen by Mariner 10.

In combining MDIS (Mercury Dual Imaging System) images collected from these three MESSENGER flyby's with those from Mariner 10 data from the 1970s, we now have a global mosaic (presented here within Map-A-Planet) of Mercury covering ~97.72% of the planet's surface (Table below).

Coverage Percentages for MESSENGER and Mariner 10
Data Set Surface Area
(km2)
Coverage
(%)
Mercury 74,822,795 100.0
M1+M2 64,323,084 85.97
M1+M2+M3 68,014,600 90.90
M3 New Coverage 3,691,516 4.93
Mariner 10 32,179,875 43.01
M1+M2+M3+M10 73,118,095 97.72
M10 contribution to mosaic 5,103,495 6.82

Mosaic Additional Details:
This mosaic represents the best geodetic map of Mercury's surface to date. MESSENGER's three flybys alone provide 90.90% of the data in the global mosaic (see Table above). Although MESSENGER went in to safe mode during the third flyby, the approach imaging was acquired and contributes ~6.82% additional coverage from earlier versions. Only the poles remain to be imaged, some of which are in permanent shadow.

The mosaic is comprised entirely of flyby data (Mariner 10 also had three Mercury flybys). The images were collected with large variations in resolution (see table below) and with varying lighting conditions while the spacecraft was traveling at speeds greater than 2 km/sec. It has been photometrically corrected using a Hapke-Henyey-Greenstein photometric model. Pixel density values are in I/F reflectance units. The darker vertical regions to left and right of center are coverage provided by images near or at the terminator (low Sun). These areas required special processing to retain illuminated features that are otherwise eliminated at incidence angles greater than 90° when the photometric model is applied.

The "smeared" data at the outer overlapping edges of the observations are limb images. These images are at high emission angles resulting in distortion within a derived map projection. The limb data are trimmed at lower emission angles in order to visually limit this effect.

The mosaic is provided at 500 meters/pixel (~85.17 pixels/degree) resolution, planetocentric latitudes with a center latitude of 0.0., and -180 to +180 positive east longitudes with a center longitude of 0.0.

MDIS-NAC Image Observations
Observation Total
Images
Images in
Global Mosaic
Average
Resolution
(m/pxl)
Minimum
Resolution
(m/pxl)
Maximum
Resolution
(m/pxl)
M1_APP_NAC_MOSAIC_1 38 38 511 470 553
M1_DEP_NAC_MOSAIC_1 87 87 532 473 590
M1_DEP_NAC_MOSAIC_2 66 0 625 573 677
M1_DEP_NAC_MOSAIC_3 43 0 806 764 847
M1_DEP_NAC_MOSAIC_4 36 36 862 822 903
M1_NAC_MOSAIC_1 68 68 144 116 171
M1_NAC_MOSAIC_2 96 96 281 236 325
M2_APP_NAC_MOSAIC_1 27 27 461 426 496
M2_DEP_NAC_MOSAIC_1 35 0 132 99 166
M2_DEP_NAC_MOSAIC_2 175 175 254 162 347
M2_DEP_NAC_MOSAIC_3 86 86 578 522 633
M2_DEP_NAC_MOSAIC_4 67 0 671 621 720
M3_APP_NAC_MOSAIC_1 62 58 1983 396 3570
Total 886 671
Bold text indicates inclusion within the global mosaic.

Control Network:
There are 13 total observation sequences from all three MESSENGER flybys included in the control network. This figure shows outlines of the locations of selected MDIS image observations used in the mosaic. The table directly above shows the breakdown of these observations in terms of number, resolution and inclusion in the mosaic.

The existing Mariner 10 base map provided a ground "truth" for the MESSENGER control network. Select MESSENGER images were tied to the Mariner 10 base at seven different ground truth locations. Using ISIS3 software, 5,301 control points (18,834 measurements) were selected in 886 MDIS narrow-angle camera (NAC) images. Highly specialized bundle block adjustment software was used to minimize image boundary mismatches.

The maximum RMS error for the global control is 3.48 pixels. The average RMS error is 0.2 pixels. Absolute errors of the MESSENGER bundle adjustment are relative to the base map as reported to be ~25 km [Robinson 1999]. Hun Kal, a small crater defining the longitude system of Mercury, is within ~2.257 km of its predicted position of 20°W longitude.

Start mapping Mercury with the MDIS/Mariner 10 image data set

Additional information and full resolution single file (ISIS3, JPEG, PNG, etc) download are available here.


References

K. J. Becker, M. S. Robinson, T. L. Becker, L. A. Weller, S. Turner, L. Nguyen, C. Selby, B. W. Denevi, S. L. Murchie, R. L. McNutt, S. C. Solomon, Near Global Mosaic of Mercury, Eos, Vol. 90, Number 52, 29 December 2009, Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract P21A-1189.

Robinson, Mark S., et al., (1999) Revised control network for Mercury, Journal of Geophysical Research, 104(E12) Pages 30,847-30,852.

Becker, Kris J, et al., (2008) A New Global Mosaic of Mercury, Eos Trans. AGU, 89(53), Fall Meet. Suppl., Abstract U21A-0015.

Anderson, Jeffery A, et al., (2004) Modernization of the Integrated Software for Imagers and Spectrometers, Lunar and Planetary Science XXXV, Abstract 2039.



Venus Data Sets

Magellan was launched in 1989 to collect radar imagery, topography, and gravity field data of Venus. Magellan orbited Venus for four years during its extended mission. At the conclusion of the mission, Magellan was intentionally crashed into the planet's surface, allowing the spacecraft to collect data on Venus' atmosphere before it was destroyed. It was the first time a working planetary spacecraft was ever intentionally crashed. For more about the Magellan mission, visit the NASA/JPL Magellan Mission web page.

Map-a-Planet offers a comprehensive collection of global Magellan products, listed below. The following table lists the highest available resolution for each data set. Click the data set name to jump down to a description of the data set.

Highest Resolutions Available for Venus Data Sets
Data Set Resolution
px/deg
Scale
km/px
Venus Magellan SAR (left-, right-, and stereo-look) 1408 0.075
Venus Magellan Topography (GTDR) 22.75
Venus Magellan Meter Scale Slope (GSDR) 22.75
Venus Magellan Microwave Emissivity (GEDR) 22.75
Venus Magellan Fresnel Reflectivity (GREDR) 22.75

Magellan Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR)

Because Venus is shrouded by a dense, opaque atmosphere, conventional optical cameras cannot be used to image its surface. Instead, Magellan's imaging radar uses bursts of microwave energy somewhat like a camera flash to illuminate the planet's surface. The radar pulses are not sent directly downward but rather at a slight angle to the side of the spacecraft--the radar is thus called "side-looking radar." In addition, special processing techniques are used on the radar data to result in higher resolution as if the radar had a larger antenna, or "aperture"; the technique is thus often called "synthetic aperture radar," or SAR. (Reference: NASA/JPL Magellan Mission)

Example images created from the three Venus SAR FMAP data sets available on Map-a-Planet



Magellan Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) FMAP Left-Look

As mentioned above, the Magellan SAR is a side-looking radar system. Radar pulses are not sent directly downward but rather at a slight angle to the side of the spacecraft. In the case of Left-Look Magellan SAR data, the radar system was sending signals to the left of the spacecraft. The SAR operated in this left-looking mode during cycles 1 and 3 of the mission. The global left-looking SAR data set created by the USGS Astrogeology Research Program, served here on the Map-a-Planet website, is referred to as the Magellan FMAP Left-Look (full-resolution left-looking radar map).

Start mapping Venus with the Magellan SAR FMAP Left-Look image data set



Magellan Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) FMAP Right-Look

As mentioned above, the Magellan SAR is a side-looking radar system. In the case of Right-Look Magellan SAR data, the radar system was sending signals to the right of the spacecraft. The SAR operated in this right-looking mode during cycle 2 of the mission. The global left-looking SAR data set created by the USGS Astrogeology Research Program, served here on the Map-a-Planet website, is referred to as the Magellan FMAP Left-Look (full-resolution left-looking radar map).

Start mapping Venus with the Magellan SAR FMAP Right-Look image data set



Magellan Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) FMAP Stereo-Look

The Magellan SAR operated in this left-looking mode during cycles 1 and 3 of the mission. The overlapping left-look data collected by the mission was used to create stereo views of portions of the surface.

Start mapping Venus with the Magellan SAR FMAP Stereo-Look image data set



Topography: Magellan Global Topography Data Record (GTDR)

During the collection of the SAR (radar) data, Magellan also collected altimetry (surface height data), which was used to create the Global Topography Data Record (GTDR) topography data set.

Start mapping Venus with the Magellan GTDR (topography) data set



Meter Scale Slope: Magellan Global Slope Data Record (GSDR)

During the collection of the SAR (radar) data, Magellan also collected altimetry (surface height data), which was used to create the Global Slope Data Record (GSDR) (meter scale slope) data set.

Start mapping Venus with the Magellan GSDR (meter scale slope) image data set



Microwave Emissivity: Magellan Global Emissivity Data Record (GEDR)

During the collection of the SAR (radar) data, Magellan's radiometer also passively collected radiated thermal microwave energy data, used to create the Global Emissivity Data Record (GEDR) data set.

Start mapping Venus with the Magellan GEDR (microwave emissivity) image data set



Fresnel Reflectivity: Magellan Global Reflectivity Data Record (GREDR)

Global Reflectivity Data Record (GREDR) (reflectivity) data set.

Start mapping Venus with the Magellan Global Reflectivity Data Record (GREDR) (Fresnel reflectivity) data set



Lunar Cartographic Data Sets

The table below lists the highest available resolution for each data set. Click the data set name to jump down to a description of the data set.

Highest Resolutions Available for Lunar Data Sets
Data Set Resolution
px/deg
Scale
km/px
Lunar Shaded Relief "Hillshade" Topographic Map 64 0.4738
Lunar Clementine Color-coded Elevation 32 0.9476
Lunar Clementine Greyscale (750 nm 'Albedo' Base Map) V1 & V2 303 0.1
Lunar Clementine UVVIS 'Natural' Color Composite 303 0.1
Lunar Clementine UVVIS Color-Ratio 303 0.1
Lunar Clementine NIR 'Enhanced' Color 303 0.1
Lunar Clementine Derived FeO 30.323 1.0
Lunar Photography: Lunar Orbiter Photo-Mosaic 512 0.0592
Lunar Topography: Kaguya Laser Altimeter Elevation Map 16 1.8952
Lunar Topography: LRO-LOLA GDR Digital Elevation Model 1024 0.0296
Lunar Prospector: Elemental Abundance 2 15.16

Shaded Relief or "Hillshade" Topographic Map

Shaded relief or "hill-shade" lunar topographic maps of the Moon were created by the U.S. Geological Survey in the 1970s and 1980s using airbrush techniques to blend and merge photographic images (primarily from Lunar Orbiter) of the Moon. This mosaic was created in 2002 (see Rosiek et all., 2002) at 1:10 million scale by combining the airbrush maps digitally, and updating coverage with Clementine topographic data. The shaded relief image shows lunar topographic features without the influence of albedo.

Start mapping the Moon with the Shaded Relief image data set

References

Greeley, R. and R.M. Batson, eds., Planetary Mapping, Cambridge Planetary Science Series, 1990, 296 pp.

Inge, J.L. and P.M. Bridges, 1976, Applied photointerpretation for airbrush cartography, Photogrammetric Engineering and Remote Sensing, 42 (6), 749-760.

Rosiek, M.R. and R. Aeschliman, 2001, Lunar shaded relief map updated with Clementine data, LPS XXXII, #1943.

Rosiek, M.R., R. Kirk, and E. Howington-Kraus, 2002, Color-coded Topography and Shaded Relief Maps of the Lunar Hemispheres, LPS XXXIII, #1792.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2002, Color-coded Topography and Shaded Relief Map of the Lunar Near Side and Far Side Hemispheres, U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigation Series I-2769.

Zuber, M.T., D.E. Smith, F.G. Lemoine, and G.A. Neumann, 1994, The shape and internal structure of the Moon from the Clementine mission, Science, 266, 1839-1843.



Clementine Elevation Map

Color-coded elevation data from the Clementine laser altimeter (Smith et al., 1997) are shown overlaid on the updated 1:10 M-scale USGS shaded relief map of the Moon. The shaded relief data provide interpretations of lunar morphology based on lunar photographs and were used as a grayscale image for this global mosaic (USGS, 2002, I-Map 2769). Elevation data from the Clementine laser altimeter were updated with topographic data collected photogrammetrically from Clementine stereo images (Cook et al., 2000; Margot et al., 2000). The resulting topographic map was color-coded based on elevation value (USGS, 2002) and coregistered to the shaded relief data to form the final photomosaic. Blues and greens are lower elevations, reds and yellows are higher (see key at right).

Start mapping the Moon with the Clementine elevation data

References

Cook, A., Watters, T.R., Robinson, M.S., Spudis, P.D., and Bussey, D.B.J., 2000, Lunar polar topography derived from Clementine stereoimages: Journal of Geophysical Research, v. 105, no. E5, p. 12,023-12,033.

Margot, J.L., Campbell, D.B., Jurgens, R.F., Slade, M.A., 2000, Digital elevation models of the Moon from Earth-based radar interferometry: IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, v. 38, no. 2, p. 1122-1133.

Rosiek, M.R. and R. Aeschliman, 2001, Lunar shaded relief map updated with Clementine data, LPS XXXII, #1943.

Rosiek, M.R., R. Kirk, and E. Howington-Kraus, 2002, Color-coded topography and shaded relief maps of the lunar hemispheres, LPS XXXIII, #1792.

Smith, David E., Zuber, Maria T., Neumann, Gregory A. and Lemoine, Frank G., 1997, Topography Of The Moon From The Clementine Lidar, JGR, Vol. 102, No. E1, Pages 1591-1611.

U.S. Geological Survey, 2002, Color-coded Topography and Shaded Relief Map of the Lunar Near Side and Far Side Hemispheres, U.S. Geological Survey Geologic Investigation Series I-2769.



Clementine Multispectral Mosaic: Ultraviolet/Visible and Near Infrared (NIR)

The Clementine experiment carried four scientific imaging cameras: the Ultraviolet/Visible (UVVIS), Near-Infrared (NIR), High-Resolution (HiRES), and Long-wave Infrared (LWIR) cameras. The Ultraviolet/Visible (UVVIS) camera imaged the surface of the Moon at five wavelengths spanning the ultraviolet to near-infrared spectrum and the Near-Infrared (NIR) camera collected data at six wavelengths extending into the short-wave infrared (see tables below). This experiment yielded information on the color and inferred compositional properties of lunar soils and surface units, and also provided images useful for morphologic studies and cratering statistics. Most images were taken at low Sun angles, which is useful for compositional studies but not for observing morphology. Global mosaics at the five UVVIS and six NIR coregistered wavelengths were created using nearly 1 million images and are displayed here at a resolution of ~100 m/pixel.

UVVIS Center Wavelength (nm) Band-
Width (nm)
Description
415 40 Ultraviolet
750 10 Red-Near Infrared
900 20 Near Infrared
950 30 Near Infrared
1000 30 Near Infrared

NIR Center Wavelength (nm) Band-
Width (nm)
Description
1100 30 Near Infrared
1250 30 Near Infrared
1500 30 Short-wave Infrared
2000 30 Short-wave Infrared
2600 30 Short-wave Infrared
2780 60 Short-wave Infrared

See this reference for these wavelength ranges: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Infrared

References

Eliason, E., C. Isbell, E. Lee, T. Becker, L. Gaddis, A. McEwen, M. Robinson, Mission to the Moon: The Clementine UVVIS Global Lunar Mosaic, PDS Volumes USA_NASA_PDS_CL_4001 through 4078, produced by the U.S. Geological Survey and distributed on CD media by the Planetary Data System, 1999.

Eliason, E.M., A.S. McEwen, M.S. Robinson, E.M. Lee, T.L. Becker, L. Gaddis, L.A. Weller, C.E. Isbell, J.R. Shinaman, T. Duxbury, E. Malaret, Clementine: A Global Multi-Spectral Map of the Moon from the Clementine UVVIS Imaging Instrument: Lunar and Planetary Science Conference 30th, pp. 1933-1934, 1999.

Eliason, E.M., E.M. Lee, T.L. Becker, L.A. Weller, C.E. Isbell, M.I. Staid, L.R. Gaddis, A.S. McEwen, M.S. Robinson, T. Duxbury, D. Steutel, D.T. Blewett, and P.G. Lucey, A Near-Infrared (NIR) global multispectral map of the Moon from Clementine, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXIV, abstract #2093, 2003.

Gaddis, Lisa, Chris Isbell, Matt Staid, Eric Eliason, Ella Mae Lee, Lynn Weller, Tracie Sucharski, Paul Lucey, Dave Blewett, John Hinrichs, and Donovan Steutel, 2007 (in review), The Clementine NIR Global Lunar Mosaic, PDS Volumes USA_NASA_PDS_CL_5001 through 5078, produced by the U.S. Geological Survey and distributed online and on DVD media by the Planetary Data System.

Lucey, P.G., D.T. Blewett, E. Eliason, L.A. Weller, R. Sucharski, E. Malaret, J.L. Hinrichs, and P.D. Owensby, Optimized calibration constants for the Clementine NIR camera, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXIX, #1273, 2000.

McEwen, A.S., M. Robinson, Mapping of the Moon by Clementine: Adv. Space Research, Vol. 19, No. 10, pp. 1523-1533, 1997.

Nozette, S., P. Rustan, L.P. Pleasance, D.M. Horan, P. Regeon, E.M. Shoemaker, P.D. Spudis, C.H. Acton, D.N. Baker, J.E. Blamont, B.J. Buratti, M.P. Corson, M.E. Davies, T.C. Duxbury, E.M. Eliason, B.M. Jakosky, J.F. Kordas, I.T. Lewis, C.L. Lichtenberg, P.G. Lucey, E. Malaret, M.A. Massie, J.H. Resnick, C.J. Rollins, H.S. Park, A.S. McEwen, R.E. Priest, C.M. Pieters, R.A. Reisse, M.S. Robinson, D.E. Smith, T.C. Sorenson, R.W. Vorder Breugge, and M.T. Zuber, The Clementine Mission to the Moon: Scientific Overview: Science, Vol. 266, pp. 1835-1839, 1994.



Clementine UVVIS Greyscale Image (750 nm 'Albedo' Basemap) V1 & V2

The Clementine 750 nm Version 2 mosaic is a greyscale data set representing the albedo (brightness of the lunar surface) as measured at the 750 nm wavelength by the UVVIS camera. This lunar base map (v. 1.0) is a radiometrically and geometrically controlled, photometrically modeled global image mosaic compiled using more than 43,000 images from the 750 nanometer filter observations of the UVVIS (Eliason et al., 1997; Eliason et al., 1999; Isbell et al., 1999).

In late 2008, a revised 750 nm mosaic (v. 2.0) was created at USGS to refine the locations of component images by using the latest geodetic control and projecting onto a topographic model of the lunar surface (Archinal et al., 2006).

Start mapping the Moon with the Clementine Grayscale Albedo (750 nm Base Map) image data set: - V1.0 (1999) - V2.0 (2008)


References

Archinal, B.A., M.R. Rosiek, R.L. Kirk and B.L. Redding, 2006, The Unified Lunar Control Network 2005 , U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1367.

Eliason, E., C. Isbell, E. Lee, T. Becker, L. Gaddis, A. McEwen, M. Robinson, Mission to the Moon: The Clementine UVVIS Global Lunar Mosaic, PDS Volumes USA_NASA_PDS_CL_4001 through 4078, produced by the U.S. Geological Survey and distributed on CD media by the Planetary Data System, 1999.

Eliason, E., C. Isbell, E. Lee, T. Becker, L. Gaddis, A. McEwen, M. Robinson, Clementine Basemap Mosaic, PDS Volumes USA_NASA_PDS_CL_3001 through 3015, produced by the U.S. Geological Survey and distributed on CD media by the Planetary Data System, 1997.

Isbell, C. E., E.M. Eliason, K.C. Adams, T.L. Becker, A.L. Bennett, E.M. Lee, A. McEwen, M. Robinson, J. Shinaman, L.A. Weller, 1999, Clementine: A Multi-Spectral Digital Image Model Archive of the Moon, LPS XXX: Lunar and Planetary Institute, Houston, Abs. #1812.



Clementine UVVIS 'Natural' Color Composite Mosaic and Elemental Abundance Derivations

The Clementine 'natural' color composite mosaic (5 UVVIS bands available) is presented here for browsing by utilizing three of the five UVVIS multispectral bands, combined in red, green and blue channels of a color image (see table below). (Note: The composite image is not truly "natural color," but mimics natural color to the human eye.) This multispectral lunar mosaic is a radiometrically and geometrically controlled, photometrically modeled global image mosaic compiled using more than 400,000 images from multiple filter observations of the Ultraviolet/Visible (UVVIS) camera onboard the Clementine Spacecraft (Eliason et al., 1999).

Channel Band Description
Red 1000 nm Near Infrared
Green 900 nm Near Infrared
Blue 415 nm Ultraviolet

This '3-band' view is presented for browsing purposes. All five bands of the Clementine global mosaic are available when ordering data downloads of the UVVIS 'Natural Color' product.

Start mapping the Moon with the Clementine UVVIS 'Natural Color' data set


References

Eliason, E., C. Isbell, E. Lee, T. Becker, L. Gaddis, A. McEwen, M. Robinson, Mission to the Moon: The Clementine UVVIS Global Lunar Mosaic, PDS Volumes USA_NASA_PDS_CL_4001 through 4078, produced by the U.S. Geological Survey and distributed on CD media by the Planetary Data System, 1999.



Clementine UVVIS Elemental Abundance and Soil Maturity Maps

A number of mapping parameters have been calculated from Clementine UVVIS data, and over time these have been modified and/or improved for specific types of units on the lunar surface. Here we present several of these derived map products, including iron abundance (as weight percent FeO), titanium abundance (as weight percent TiO2), and optical maturity of lunar soils. FeO maps of the lunar surface were originally developed by Lucey et al. (1995, 1998, 2000) and later modified by Lawrence and others in 2002. Further refinements to the FeO abundance algorithm for the lunar surface were presented more recently by LeMouelic et al. (2000) and (for the lunar maria) by Wilcox et al. (2005). Maps showing the original titanium abundance parameter (Lucey et al., 2000) and soil maturity parameter maps (Lucey et al., 2000) may also be created from the Clementine UVVIS data provided by MAP. Additional derived parameter maps will be added later.

Users can create reduced and full-resolution (~100 m/pixel) versions of these maps as described further below. Please refer to equations in the references cited for information on how these parameters are calculated using the Clementine UVVIS data. References also describe interpretation of calculated data (DN) values and possible spatial, spectral, or other limitations to consider when using these derived products.

Type Nameref.
Iron Estimate FeO(wt%) Lucey 2000 3
Iron Estimate FeO(wt%) Lawrence 2002 1
Iron Estimate FeO(wt%) Wilcox 2005 6
Optical Maturity OMAT Lucey 2000 7
Mare Optical Maturity OMAT Wilcox 2005 6
Titanium Estimate TiO2(wt%) Lucey 2000 3
Detailed function descriptions are available here.

When exploring the UVVIS Color Composite Mosaic, maps of elemental abundance and maturity are available via the 'Order' system using the following process:

  1. Select the UVVIS 'Natural' Color data set from the top-level Moon page
  2. Identify a region of interest on the display page (you can change this later)
  3. At left, select the 'Order' Icon
  4. Scroll down and select the desired "Elemental Abundance" mapping algorithm
  5. Define other form and "Advanced Options" fields as desired, including ...
    1. Stretch = "None"
    2. Image Format = "PDS", "ISIS", or "RAW"
    3. Bands = "1,2,3,4,5"
    4. Adjust region of interest if desired
  6. Select "Submit Order"
  7. Resulting product is a floating point (32bit LSW) image


References

  1. Lawrence, D. J., W. C. Feldman, R. C. Elphic, R. C. Little, T. H. Prettyman, S. Maurice, P. G. Lucey, and A. B. Binder, 2002, Iron abundances on the lunar surface as measured by the Lunar Prospector gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers, Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(E12), 5130, doi:10.1029/2001JE001530.

  2. LeMouelic, S., P.G. Lucey, Y. Langevin, and B.R. Hawke, 2002, Calculating iron contents of lunar highland materials surrounding Tycho crater from integrated Clementine UV-visible and near-infrared data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(E10), 5074, doi:10.1029/2000JE001484.

  3. Lucey, Paul G., David T. Blewett, and Bradley L. Jolliff, 2000, Lunar iron and titanium abundance algorithms based on final processing of Clementine ultraviolet-visible images, Journal of Geophysical Research, 105(E8), pp. 20297-20305.

  4. Lucey, P.G., D.T. Blewett and B.R. Hawke, 1998, Mapping the FeO and TiO2 content of the lunar surface with multispectral imagery, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(E2), pp. 3679-3700.

  5. Lucey, P.G., G.J. Taylor, and E. Malaret, 1995, Abundance and distribution of iron on the Moon, Science, 268, pp. 1150-1153.

  6. Wilcox, B.B., P.G. Lucey and J.J. Gillis, 2005, Mapping iron in the lunar mare: An improved approach, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, E11001, doi:10.1029/2005JE002512.

  7. Lucey, Paul G., David T. Blewett, G. Jeffrey Taylor and B. Ray Hawke, 2000, Imaging of Lunar Surface Maturity, Journal of Geophysical Research, 105(E8), pp. 20377-20386.




Clementine UVVIS 'False Color' or Color-Ratio Image

The Clementine UVVIS Ratio ("false color") views of the Moon are created by creating ratio images using 3 of the 5 Clementine UVVIS camera bands and combining these into the red, green, and blue channels of a color image:

Channel Ratio (band/band)
Red 750 nm/415 nm
Green 750 nm/950 nm
Blue 414 nm/750 nm

The color ratio image product serves to cancel out the dominant brightness variations of the scene (controlled by albedo variations and topographic shading) and enhances color differences related to soil mineralogy and maturity. The lunar highlands, mostly old (~4.5 billion years) gabbroic anorthosite rocks, are depicted in shades of red (old) and blue (younger). The lunar maria (~3.9 to ~1 billion years), mostly iron-rich basaltic materials of variable titanium contents, are portrayed in shades of yellow/orange (iron-rich, lower titanium) and blue (iron-rich, higher titanium). Superimposed on and intermingled with these basic units are materials from basins and craters of various ages, ranging from the dark reds and blues of ancient basins to the bright blue crater rays of younger craters (e.g., Mcewen et al., 1999; Pieters et al., 1999).

Start mapping the Moon with the Clementine Ratio image data set


References

Eliason, E., C. Isbell, E. Lee, T. Becker, L. Gaddis, A. McEwen, M. Robinson, Mission to the Moon: The Clementine UVVIS Global Lunar Mosaic, PDS Volumes USA_NASA_PDS_CL_4001 through 4078, produced by the U.S. Geological Survey and distributed on CD media by the Planetary Data System, 1999.

McEwen, A.S., M.S. Robinson, E.M. Eliason, P.G. Lucey, T.C. Duxbury, and P.D. Spudis, 1999, Clementine Observations of the Aristarchus Region of the Moon, Science, 266, pp. 1858-1861.

Pieters, C.M., M.I. Staid, E.M. Fischer, S. Tompkins, and G. He, 1994, A sharper view of impact craters from Clementine data, Science, 266, 1844-1848



Clementine NIR 'Enhanced' Color Composite Mosaic

The Clementine NIR 'enhanced' color composite mosaic available for browsing on the site is comprised of three of the five Clementine UVVIS multispectral bands, combined in the red, green, and blue channels of a color image (see table below). (Note: The composite image is 'false color' but mimics natural color to the human eye.) This multispectral lunar mosaic is a radiometrically and geometrically controlled, photometrically modeled global image mosaic compiled using more than 400,000 images from multiple filteri observations of the Near Infrared (NIR) camera onboard the Clementine spacecraft (Gaddis et al., 2007).

Channel Band Description
Red 2000 nm Short-wave Infrared
Green 1500 nm Short-wave Infrared
Blue 1100 nm Near Infrared

This '3-band' color view is presented for browsing purposes. All six bands of this Clementine global mosaic are available when ordering data downloads of the NIR 'Enhanced' Color product.

Start mapping the Moon with the Clementine NIR 'Enhanced' Color data set


References

Gaddis, Lisa, Chris Isbell, Matt Staid, Eric Eliason, Ella Mae Lee, Lynn Weller, Tracie Sucharski, Paul Lucey, Dave Blewett, John Hinrichs, and Donovan Steutel, 2007 (in review), The Clementine NIR Global Lunar Mosaic, PDS Volumes USA_NASA_PDS_CL_5001 through 5078, produced by the U.S. Geological Survey and distributed online and on DVD media by the Planetary Data System.

Lucey, P.G., J.L. Hinrichs, and E. Malaret, Progress Toward Calibration of the Clementine Near Infrared Camera Data Set, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXVIII, Abstract #1401, 1997.

Lucey, P.G., J. Hinrichs, C. Budney, G. Smith, C. Frost, B.R. Hawke, E. Malaret, M.S. Robinson, B. Bussey, T. Duxbury, D. Cook, P. Coffin, E. Eliason, T. Sucharski, A. McEwen, C.M. Pieters, Calibration of the Clementine Near Infrared Camera: Ready for Prime Time, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXXI, Abstract #1576, 1998.

Lucey, P.G., D.T. Blewett, E. Eliason, L.A. Weller, R. Sucharski, E. Malaret, J.L. Hinrichs, and P.D. Owensby, Optimized calibration constants for the Clementine NIR camera, Lunar and Planetary Science Conference XXIX, #1273, 2000.



Clementine Derived FeO

Clementine derived iron abundance (as weight percent FeO) data. FeO maps derived from Clementine UVVIS data as described by Lawrence and others in 2002. FeO weight percent ranges from 0 to ~25% in this map. Lawrence et al. (2002) modified the derivation algorithms originally presented by Lucey et al. (1995, 1998, 2000). Note that further refinements to the FeO abundance algorithm for the lunar surface have been presented by LeMouelic et al. (2000) and (for the lunar maria) Wilcox et al. (2005).

This iron abundance map has a spatial resolution of 1.0 km/pixel; users can create full-resolution (~100 m/pixel) versions of these maps by applying the simple math equations found in these references to bands 2 (750 nm) and 4 (950 nm) of the Clementine UVVIS data available here at 0.1 km/pixel.

FeO (wt%) ~25
~12.5
0
The FeO abundance map is also available as a binned color product in which the FeO weight percent values are expressed as color ranges as shown here.

Start mapping the Moon with the Clementine derived FeO data set

Start mapping the Moon with the Clementine derived FeO binned color data set


References

Lawrence, D. J., W. C. Feldman, R. C. Elphic, R. C. Little, T. H. Prettyman, S. Maurice, P. G. Lucey, and A. B. Binder, 2002, Iron abundances on the lunar surface as measured by the Lunar Prospector gamma-ray and neutron spectrometers, Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(E12), 5130, doi:10.1029/2001JE001530.

LeMouelic, S., P.G. Lucey, Y. Langevin, and B.R. Hawke, 2002, Calculating iron contents of lunar highland materials surrounding Tycho crater from integrated Clementine UV-visible and near-infrared data, Journal of Geophysical Research, 107(E10), 5074, doi:10.1029/2000JE001484.

Lucey, Paul G., David T. Blewett, and Bradley L. Jolliff, 2000, Lunar iron and titanium abundance algorithms based on final processin gof Clementine ultraviolet-visible images, Journal of Geophysical Research, 105(E8), pp. 20297-20305.

Lucey, P.G., D.T. Blewett and B.R. Hawke, 1998, Mapping the FeO and TiO2 content of the lunar surface with multispectral imagery, Journal of Geophysical Research, 103(E2), pp. 3679-3700.

Lucey, P.G., G.J. Taylor, and E. Malaret, 1995, Abundance and distribution of iron on the Moon, Science, 268, pp. 1150-1153.

Wilcox, B.B., P.G. Lucey and J.J. Gillis, 2005, Mapping iron in the lunar mare: An improved approach, Journal of Geophysical Research, 110, E11001, doi:10.1029/2005JE002512.



Lunar Orbiter Digital Photographic Mosaic

Five Lunar Orbiter missions were launched by the U.S. in 1966 and 1967 to study the Moon. Lunar Orbiter images were photographic products acquired on the spacecraft during those five missions (LO-I through -V; Hansen, 1970; Bowker and Hughes, 1971). The first three missions mapped potential Apollo lunar landing sites. Lunar Orbiter IV photographed most of the near and far sides of the Moon medium- and high- resolutions. Lunar Orbiter V completed the photography of the far side and collected additional images of 36 sites of scientific interest.

This Lunar Orbiter (LO) mosaic of the Moon was constructed using photographs acquired by LO III, IV and V. Work towards constructing the global mosaic spanned over seven years. Earlier work involved scanning and processing more than 30,000 35-mm film strips from the LO high- and medium-resolution cameras (HR and MR, respectively). Digital film strips were cartographically processed to construct more than 200 individual frames and then geodetically corrected using the most recent lunar control network and topographic model (the Unified Lunar Control Network 2005 or ULCN 2005; Archinal et al., 2006, USGS Open-File Report 2006-1367, available at http://pubs.usgs.gov/of/2006/1367/. The result of this work is a moderate resolution, near-global, cartographically controlled digital mosaic of the Moon. (Gaddis et al., 2001, 2003; Becker et al., 2004, 2005; Weller et al., 2006, 2007). The nominal resolution of the mosaic is ~60 m/pixel.

The constructed LO frames (unprojected) are currently available in "tiff" format at 100-micron resolution on the LO website at USGS (http://astrogeology.usgs.gov/Projects/LunarOrbiterDigitization). Background information on scanning and frame construction, along with recent publications and illustrations, are available on this site. The website includes a number of LO frames that were not included in the global mosaic because of redundant coverage or poor quality. All frames were included in the global photogrammetric solution with updated spacecraft orbits and camera angles tied to the ULCN 2005 control network.


Data Coverage

The near side (pole-to-pole) LO mosaic is complete using LO IV HR camera data. Far side coverage is dominated by limb and terminator views acquired by LO V HR and MR cameras. Also included is a single view obtained by LO III HR and MR cameras that provides coverage at the southern far side (centered on crater Tsiolkovskiy). To fill in gaps where possible, LO IV MR data are included. The mid-latitude empty area across the far side is a LO data gap. Data coverage in this region acquired by LO I, II and IV could not be cartographically processed due to poor quality, lack of reseau marks on film, or unexposed fiducial marks.


Cosmetic Processing

Cosmetic processing has not been applied to the data included the global mosaic. A high-pass filter was applied to the frames before mosaicking to normalize the relative brightness, especially in terminator regions across the far side. The results accentuate the high frequency information by retaining only 10% of the low frequency brightness variation.


Observed Artifacts

Spacecraft faults: A majority of the frames contain random spacecraft processing faults, and these artifacts often look like "water mark" or "coffee ring" patterns. The faults occurred during processing of the film onboard the spacecraft. Data in these areas are lost and not recoverable. An overlapping frame covering the same area often does not have a processing fault. No attempt was made to remove these artifacts.

White Dashes: Every frame contains synchronized read-out (white) dashes along the film strip margins. The global mosaic was constructed with non-cosmetic "raw" frames containing these dashes. A first-order cosmetic enhancement process later removed the dashes on many of the constructed frames. Successful "no-dash" versions of the frames are available on the LO website listed above. Due to the difficulty of isolating the dashes from original data, the removal was not 100% successful for all frames and the no-dash LO data collection is incomplete. The no-dash LO frames were not included in the mosaic at the present time.

"Venetian Blind" Striping: Low-contrast striping across each frame remains in the LO mosaic. This "venetian blind" effect is a familiar characteristic of Lunar Orbiter data and it was caused by systematic variations in brightness levels across each film strip. The white dashes along the filmstrip margins also contribute to this apparent banding.

Film Strip Gaps: A number of frames display narrow data gaps between film strips. The gaps were not removed before mosaicking and can be particularly obvious where an overlapping frame shows through in the mosaic. These gaps were likely caused by data or film distortion during a mission readout process either onboard or transfer to Earth. Although the pre-exposed reseau marks (+) on the film were used rectify each digital film strip for frame construction, the number and spacing of the reseau marks were inadequate to fully remove the distortion in severe cases.

DEM Artifacts: There are a few areas in the global mosaic where spikes or artifacts in the ULCN 2005 topographic or digital elevation model (DEM) caused artifacts or errors in the LO mosaic. For each pixel in a LO frame, radius values from the same site in the DEM file are used to project the pixel onto the surface. Pronounced artifacts in the DEM were propagated to the projected LO image data. The resulting pattern in the LO mosaic is a "log cabin" or "checkerboard" effect where the image data is compromised in a few isolated areas. The ULCN 2005 DEM will continue to be evaluated and "smoothed" to remove these artifacts in the future.


Geometric Control

The LO spacecraft orbit and camera angles for each frame were adjusted to the ULCN 2005 using a least squares photogrammetric triangulation. Overlapping frames share control point pixel measurements in addition to measurements to existing points within the ULCN 2005. Selected NASA Clementine 750-nm basemap image tiles were used as the image reference for the ULCN 2005 points measured in LO frames. The latitude, longitude and radius values for the ULCN 2005 control points were fixed as .ground truth. in the LO global solution. For each LO exposure, adjusting both the LO spacecraft position and the camera angles reduced the maximum RMS errors by a factor of two.

As each frame was projected into the equirectangular map projection, the ULCN 2005 DEM was used to map every pixel to the surface topography according to the radius value within the DEM. This orthorectifation of the frames resulted in a high-order registration of features across and within overlapping projected frames. The LO global mosaic is the first digital map product constructed based on both the horizontal (latitude, longitude) and vertical (topography) ULCN 2005 geometry and DEM. Other lunar products have been warped to the UCLN 2005 horizontal geometry (LPSC 2008; B. Archinal and T. Hare; see http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2008/pdf/2245.pdf and http://www.lpi.usra.edu/meetings/lpsc2008/pdf/2337.pdf).


ISIS3 Processing

Retrieve and unzip the ISIS2 files (for ISIS3 conversion): Within ISIS3; execute the following for each file: To mosaic tiles, first create an ASCII file containing the list of converted ISIS3 tiles (any_tiles.lis), then execute the following:

Start mapping the Moon with the Lunar Orbiter Mosaic data set


References

Archinal, B.A., M.R. Rosiek, R.L. Kirk and B.L. Redding, 2006, The Unified Lunar Control Network 2005 , U.S. Geological Survey Open-File Report 2006-1367.

Becker, T., L. Weller, L. Gaddis, 2008, Lunar Orbiter Mosaic of the Moon, LPS XXXIX, abs. #2357.

Becker, T., L. Weller, L. Gaddis, D. Soltesz, D. Cook, A. Bennett, D. Galuszka, B. Redding, and J. Richie, 2004, Progress on Reviving Lunar Orbiter: Scanning, Archiving, and Cartographic Processing at USGS, LPS XXXV, abs. #1791.

Becker, T., L. Weller, L. Gaddis, D. Soltesz, D. Cook, B. Archinal, A. Bennett, T. McDaniel, B. Redding, and J. Richie, 2005, Lunar Orbiter Revived: Update on Final Stages of Scanning, Archiving, and Cartographic Processing at USGS, LPS XXXVI, abs. #1836.

Bowker, D.E. and J.K. Hughes, 1971, Lunar Orbiter Photographic Atlas of the Moon, NASA SP-206.

Gaddis, L.R., T. Sucharski, T. Becker, and A. Gitlin, 2001, Cartographic Processing of Digital Lunar Orbiter data, LPS XXXII, abs. #1892.

Gaddis, L., T. Becker, L. Weller, D. Cook, J. Richie, A. Bennett, B. Redding, and J. Shinaman, 2003, Reviving Lunar Orbiter: Scanning, Archiving, and Cartographic Processing at USGS, LPS XXXIV, abs. #1459.

Hansen, Thomas P., 1970, Guide to Lunar Orbiter Photographs, NASA SP-242.

Weller, L., B. Redding, T. Becker, L. Gaddis, R. Sucharski, D. Soltesz, D. Cook, B. Archinal, A. Bennett and T. McDaniel, 2006, Lunar Orbiter Revived: Very High Resolution Views of the Moon, LPS XXXVII, abs. #2143.

Weller, L., T. Becker, B. Archinal, A. Bennett, D. Cook, L. Gaddis, D. Galuska, R. Kirk, B. Redding, D. Soltesz, 2007, USGS Lunar Orbiter Digitization Project: Updates and Status, LPS XXXVIII, abstract #2092.



Kaguya (SELENE) Laser Altimeter: Topographic Map

This dataset provides Lunar surface elevation values as derived from data collected by the Kaguya (SELENE) LALT instrument.

The KAGUYA Laser Altimeter (LALT) performs nadir pointing laser ranging of the Moon's surface, obtaining range data along the satellite's polar orbit trajectory. These range data enabled first time construction of an accurate global topographic map of the Moon. See the JAXA Kaguya and related LALT sites for additional information.

(©JAXA/SELENE) Please see "Terms of Use" here.

Start mapping the Moon with the Kaguya LALT data set


References

Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency. KAGUYA (SELENE). 2007. Web. www.selene.jaxa.jp/en/index.htm.

Shin-ichi, Sobue, et al. "The Result of SELENE (KAGUYA) Development and Operation." Recent Patents on Space Technology. 1 (2009): 12-22. Print.

Kato, M., S. Sasaki, K. Tanaka, Y. Iijima, and Y. Takizawa (2008), "The Japanese lunar mission SELENE: Science goals and present status" , Adv. Space Res., Volume 42, Issue 2, pp 294-300.

Sasaki, S., Y. Iijima, K. Tanaka, M. Kato, M. Hashimoto, H. Mizutani, and Y. Takizawa (2003), "The SELENE mission: Goals and status" , Adv. Space Res., Volume 31, Issue 11, pp 2335-2340.

Araki, H. et al. (2009), "Lunar Global Shape and Polar Topography Derived from Kaguya-LALT Laser Altimetry" , Science, Vol. 323, no. 5916 , pp 897-900.

Gaddis, Lisa R., and Susan K. LaVoie. "PDS Imaging Node." KAGUYA (SELENE). Planetary Data System, 2011. Web. img.pds.nasa.gov/portal/kaguya_mission.html.



LRO-LOLA GDR: Digital Elevation Model

This dataset provides lunar elevation data through a global shape map of the Moon at resolution up to 1024 pix/degree. These GDR data are based on altimetry data acquired through mission phase LRO_SM_05 by the (LRO) LOLA instrument. The preliminary LOLA data are the source for this data set. Map values are relative to a radius of 1737.4 km.

Conversion to local height (meters) is accomplished via the following equation:

Height = (Stored Density Value * Scaling Factor)

Conversion to local Radius (meters) is computed as follows:

Radius = (Stored DN * Scaling factor) + offset

where Scaling Factor = 0.5 and offset = 1737400.

See the LOLA Data Archive site for additional information.

Start mapping the Moon with the LRO-LOLA GDR DEM data set


References

Smith, D.E., et al. (2010), The Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter Investigation on the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission, Space Science Reviews, Volume 150, Issue 1-4, pp 209-241.



Lunar Prospector Datasets

Lunar Prospector data presented here are derived from Lunar Prospector Reduced Spectrometer source data provided by the PDS Geosciences Node. See the former site for introductory and detailed descriptive information pertaining to the original data source. Note especially units information and varying scale factors applied when ASCII table values were converted to raw/binary images. All products (5° and ½° cell size) are provided at 2pxl/°

In addition to the original ASCII table, newly derived products (this site) include a reformatted raw/binary image (.raw), an ISIS2 image cube (.cub), and an 8-bit JPEG browse image (*.jpg);

Original ASCII table .asc Identical to original ASCII file.
See ASCII file header for more information
Raw/Binary Image .raw Raw/binary image. 720 samples x 360 lines
16-bit LSB Signed Integer
Reprocessed with north at top of image
ISIS2 Image Cube .cub ISIS2 Image map. Simple Cylindrical Projection
2pxl/deg, -180,180 East Longitude
-90,90 Latitude Range (north at top)
JPEG Browse Image .jpg Not a science product.
Intended for browse/viewing purposes only

View table of Lunar Prospector data sets


References

Feldman W. C., B. L. Barraclough, K. R. Fuller, D. J. Lawrence, S. Maurice, M. C. Miller, T. H. Prettyman, and A. B. Binder, the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray and Neutron Spectrometers, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research A, 422, 562-566, 1999.

Feldman, W. C., S. Maurice, D. J. Lawrence, R. C. Little, S. L. Lawson, O. Gasnault, R. C. Wiens, B. L. Barraclough, R. C. Elphic, T. H. Prettyman, J. T. Steinberg, and A. B. Binder, Evidence for water ice near lunar poles, J. Geophys. Res., in press, 2001c.

Lawrence, D. J., W. C. Feldman, R. C. Elphic, S. Maurice, T. H. Prettyman, and A. B. Binder, Iron abundances on the lunar surface as measured by the Lunar Prospector Gamma-Ray Spectrometer, 32nd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Abstract #1830, 2001a.

Lawrence D. J., et al., Data reduction procedures for the Lunar Prospector Gamma-ray Spectrometer, in preparation, 2001b.

Lawson, S. L., W. C. Feldman, D. J. Lawrence, K. R. Moore, S. Maurice, R. D. Belian, and A. B. Binder, Maps of lunar radon-222 and polonium-210, 33rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Abstract #1835, 2002.

Maurice, S., et al., Data reduction procedures for the Lunar Prospector Neutron Spectrometer, in preparation, 2001a.

Prettyman, T. H., W. C. Feldman, D. J. Lawrence, G. W. McKinney, A. B. Binder, R. C. Elphic, O. M. Gasnault, S. Maurice, and K. R. Moore, Library least squares analysis of Lunar Prospector gamma-ray spectra, 33rd Lunar and Planetary Science Conference, Abstract #2012, 2002.


Mars Data Sets

The following table lists the highest available resolution for each data set. Select the data set name to view a description of the data set.

Highest Resolutions Available for Mars Data Sets
Data Set Resolution
px/deg
Scale
km/px
Mars Viking Color 64 0.9254
Mars Viking Color-MDIM Merge 64 0.9254
Mars Viking MDIM (version 2.1) 256 0.2314
Mars Viking MDIM (version 2) 256 0.2314
Mars Viking MDIM (version 1) 256 0.2314
Mars MGS MOLA Topography 32 1.851
Mars MGS TES Albedo 8 7.403
Mars MGS TES Thermal Inertia 8 7.403

Viking Orbiter Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS)

The Viking Visual Imaging Subsystem (VIS) on the Viking orbiters consisted of twin high-resolution, slow-scan television framing cameras. A filter wheel between the lens and shutter held six color filter positions, listed in the following table.

Band Wavelength Range (µm) Filter Description
0.35 - 0.47 Violet
0.35 to 0.53 Blue
0.50 - 0.60 Green
0.48 - 0.70 Minus-blue (visible spectrum above the blue wavelengths)
0.55 - 0.70 Red
Panchromatic Clear (no filter)

There are several Viking products available on Map-a-Planet. These products are described below.


Viking Color

The Viking Color data set is a natural color mosaic, combining the red, green, and blue Viking VIS bands into the respective channels of a color image.

Start mapping Mars with the Viking Color image data set



Viking Mars Digital Image Model Version 2.1 (MDIM2.1)

Viking MDIM2.1 - Detailed information and references regarding the MDIM are available at the MDIM 2.1: Mars Global Digital Image Mosaic web page.

Start mapping Mars with the MDIM2.1 image data set



Viking Mars Digital Image Model Version 2 (MDIM2)

Viking MDIM2 is a specialized cartographic product generated from Viking VIS data (primarily the red, minus blue, and clear bands) described above, where albedo (surface brightness) was removed from the VIS mosaics, emphasizing topographic features. Each version of MDIM released by the USGS Astrogeology Research Program has accuracy, photometric, and cosmetic improvements. For more information about MDIM work, see the MDIM 2.1: Mars Global Digital Image Mosaic web page.

Start mapping Mars with the MDIM2 image data set



Viking Mars Digital Image Model Version 1 (MDIM1)

Viking MDIM1 is the first released version of a specialized cartographic product generated from Viking VIS data (primarily the red, minus blue, and clear bands) described above, where albedo (surface brightness) was removed from the VIS mosaics, emphasizing topographic features. Each version of MDIM released by the USGS Astrogeology Research Program has accuracy, photometric, and cosmetic improvements. For more information about MDIM work, see the MDIM 2.1: Mars Global Digital Image Mosaic web page.

Start mapping Mars with the MDIM1 image data set



Viking Color-MDIM Merge

The Viking Color-MDIM Merged data set is a product created by merging the Viking Color and MDIM1 data sets described above. This combination provides spectral and albedo with enhanced topography not apparent in the Viking Color data set.

Start mapping Mars with the Viking Color-MDIM Merge image data set



Mars Global Surveyor Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MGS MOLA) Topography

The Mars Global Surveyor mission carries the Mars Orbiter Laser Altimeter (MOLA) instrument, which measures the height of surfaces on Mars. The data from MOLA have been used to create the most accurate topographic map of Mars to date. On Map-a-Planet, this data set is a grayscale image where the level brightness is equivalent to surface elevation (brighter areas are higher elevation than darker areas).

Start mapping Mars with the MGS MOLA Topography image data set



Mars Global Surveyor TES Albedo

The Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer has acquired a variety of observations, including broadband visible/near-IR data (0.3 to 2.9 micrometers) and broadband thermal IR data (5.1 to 150 micrometers) using bolometers, in addition to spectrometer observations covering 5.8 to 50 micrometers in wavelength (Christensen et al. 2001). The VISIR data have been reduced to Lambert albedo values and gridded at 8 pixels/degree (this data set). Also, night-time thermal measurements, daytime albedo data, and thermal modeling have been used to generate gridded estimates of surface thermal inertia (see below).

Start mapping Mars with the MGS TES Albedo image data set

Data and information provided by PDS GeoSciences , MGS-TES Special Products, where additional information and resources are available.


References

Christensen et al. (2001), Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: Investigation description and surface science results, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, pp. 23,823 - 23,872.

Mellon et al. (2000), High-resolution thermal-inertia mapping from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Icarus, 148, 437-455.


Mars Global Surveyor TES Thermal Inertia

The Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer has acquired a variety of observations, including broadband visible/near-IR data (0.3 to 2.9 micrometers) and broadband thermal IR data (5.1 to 150 micrometers) using bolometers, in addition to spectrometer observations covering 5.8 to 50 micrometers in wavelength (Christensen et al. 2001). The VISIR data have been reduced to Lambert albedo values and gridded at 8 pixels/degree (see above). Also, night-time thermal measurements, daytime albedo data, and thermal modeling have been used to generate gridded estimates of surface thermal inertia (this data set).

Start mapping Mars with the MGS TES Thermal Inertia image data set

Data and information provided by PDS GeoSciences , MGS-TES Special Products, where additional information and resources are available.


References

Christensen et al. (2001), Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer experiment: Investigation description and surface science results, Journal of Geophysical Research, 106, pp. 23,823 - 23,872.

Mellon et al. (2000), High-resolution thermal-inertia mapping from the Mars Global Surveyor Thermal Emission Spectrometer, Icarus, 148, 437-455.


Satellites of Jupiter Data Sets

The following table lists the highest available resolution for each data set. Click the data set name to jump down to a description of the data set.

Highest Resolutions Available for Jovian Satellite Data Sets
Data Set Resolution
px/deg
Scale
km/px
Callisto Galileo (grayscale) 42 0.9974
Io Galileo (grayscale) 32
Io Galileo (Color) 6
Ganymede Galileo (Color) 45 0.9974
Ganymede Galileo (grayscale) 45
Europa Galileo (grayscale) 54

Callisto: Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) and Voyagers 1 & 2 (Color)

This global map of Callisto utilizes the best image quality and moderate resolution coverage supplied by Galileo SSI (Solid State Imaging instrument) and Voyager 1 and 2. This mosaic was prepared by the USGS Astrogeology Research Program using the ISIS 2 image processing and cartographic system. The image data was selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable input resolution, and availability of moderate viewing and sun angles for topography. The average input resolution was 1.0 kilometers/pixel. The resolution ranged from 60 km/pixel for gap fill up to 400 meters/pixel. For more information, see the USGS Astrogeology Jupiter Satellites - Voyager and Galileo Global Mosaics project page.

Start mapping Callisto with the Galileo/Voyager grayscale image data set



Europa: Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) and Voyagers 1 & 2 (grayscale)

This global map base of Europa utilizes the best image quality and moderate resolution coverage supplied by Galileo SSI (Solid State Imaging instrument) and Voyager 1 and 2. This mosaic was prepared by the USGS Astrogeology Research Program using the ISIS 2 image processing and cartographic system. The image data was selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable input resolution, and availability of moderate viewing and sun angles for topography. For more information, see the USGS Astrogeology Jupiter Satellites - Voyager and Galileo Global Mosaics project page.

Start mapping Europa with the Galileo/Voyager grayscale image data set



Ganymede: Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) and Voyagers 1 & 2 (Color)

This global map base of Ganymede utilizes the best image quality and moderate resolution coverage supplied by Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) and Voyager 1 and 2. This mosaic was prepared by the USGS Astrogeology Research Program using the ISIS 2 image processing and cartographic system. The image data was selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable input resolution (from 20 km/pixel for gap fill to approximately 400 meters/pixel), and availability of moderate viewing and sun angles for topography. For more information, see the USGS Astrogeology Jupiter Satellites - Voyager and Galileo Global Mosaics project page.

Start mapping Ganymede with the Galileo/Voyager Color image data set



Ganymede: Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) and Voyagers 1 & 2 (grayscale)

This global map base of Ganymede utilizes the best image quality and moderate resolution coverage supplied by Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) and Voyager 1 and 2. This mosaic was prepared by the USGS Astrogeology Research Program using the ISIS 2 image processing and cartographic system. The image data was selected on the basis of overall image quality, reasonable input resolution (from 20 km/pixel for gap fill to approximately 400 meters/pixel), and availability of moderate viewing and sun angles for topography. For more information, see the USGS Astrogeology Jupiter Satellites - Voyager and Galileo Global Mosaics project page.

Start mapping Ganymede with the Galileo/Voyager grayscale image data set



Io: Galileo Solid State Imaging (SSI) (grayscale)

The best quality global monitoring images taken by the Galileo imaging system at spatial resolutions up to 1 km/pixel have been assembled here to depict the global and regional morphology of Io. This mosaic is made up of 32 monochrome images taken at various phase angles and local times of day, so care must be taken to note the solar illumination direction when deciding whether topographic features display positive or negative relief. In general, the illumination is from the west over longitudes 0 to 270 W, and from the east over longitudes 270 W to 360 W. The images were empirically adjusted in brightness and contrast to match one another in areas of overlap. Most of the images were taken in the clear filter, but green and 756 nm filter images were substituted when they were more detailed than other available images. Image resolutions range from 1.3 to 10 km/pixel along the equator, with the poorest coverage on the Jupiter-facing side of Io.

Start mapping Io with the Galileo (BW) image data set


References

David A. Williams, Laszlo P. Keszthelyi, David A. Crown, Windy L. Jaeger, Paul E. Geissler, Paul M. Schenk, Tammy L. Becker, "Techniques for the Global Geologic Mapping of Io using Voyager and Galileo datasets", submitted to Icarus, 2006.


Satellites of Saturn Data Sets

The following table lists the highest available resolution for each data set. Click the data set name to jump down to a description of the data set.

Highest Resolutions Available for Saturnian Satellite Data Sets
Data Set Resolution
px/deg
Scale
km/px
Rhea Voyager (grayscale) 16 0.833
Rhea Cassini-Voyager (grayscale) 32 0.417
Dione Voyager (Airbrush) 16 0.610
Dione Cassini-Voyager (grayscale) 64 0.154
Tethys Voyager (grayscale) 16 0.572
Tethys Cassini (grayscale) 32 0.293
Iapetus Voyager (grayscale) 16 0.783
Enceladus Voyager (airbrush) 16 0.273
Enceladus Cassini (grayscale) 40 0.110

Rhea: Voyager 1 & 2 (grayscale)

This image mosaic is one of several products created as the first step of cartography planning in support of the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn & Titan. The data included in these mosaics were collected by both Voyager I and Voyager II missions. The Cassini spacecraft is targeting these moons and others during the mission. For more information about these mosaics, see the USGS Astrogeology Saturn Satellites - Voyager Global Image Maps project.

Start mapping Rhea with the Voyager (grayscale) image data set



Rhea: Cassini & Voyager (grayscale)

This global digital map was created using data taken during Cassini and Voyager spacecraft flybys of Rhea. It is the first of Rhea to be created using mostly only Cassini images. Six Voyager images fill gaps in Cassini's coverage of the north polar region.

See the Cassini Imaging - Rhea Map Page for additional information.

The Cassini Equinox Mission is a joint United States and European endeavor. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter was designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team consists of scientists from the US, England, France, and Germany. The imaging operations center and team lead (Dr. C. Porco) are based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

Start mapping Rhea with the Cassini-Voyager (grayscale) image data set


Dione: Voyager 1 & 2 (grayscale)

This image mosaic is one of several products created as the first step of cartography planning in support of the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn & Titan. The data included in these mosaics were collected by both Voyager I and Voyager II missions. The Cassini spacecraft is targeting these moons and others during the mission. For more information about these mosaics, see the USGS Astrogeology Saturn Satellites - Voyager Global Image Maps project.

Start mapping Dione with the Dione grayscale image data set



Dione: Cassini & Voyager (grayscale)

This global digital map was created using data taken during Cassini and Voyager spacecraft flybys of Dione. Images from NASA's Voyager mission fill the gaps in Cassini's coverage.

See the Cassini Imaging - Dione Map Page for additional information.

The Cassini Equinox Mission is a joint United States and European endeavor. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter was designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team consists of scientists from the US, England, France, and Germany. The imaging operations center and team lead (Dr. C. Porco) are based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

Start mapping Dione with the Dione Cassini-Voyager image data set


Tethys: Voyager 1 & 2 (grayscale)

This image mosaic is one of several products created as the first step of cartography planning in support of the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn & Titan. The data included in these mosaics were collected by both Voyager I and Voyager II missions. The Cassini spacecraft is targeting these moons and others during the mission. For more information about these mosaics, see the USGS Astrogeology Saturn Satellites - Voyager Global Image Maps project.

Start mapping Tethys with the Voyager (grayscale) image data set



Tethys: Cassini (grayscale)

This global map of Saturn's moon Tethys was created using images taken during Cassini spacecraft flybys.

See the Cassini Imaging - Tethys Map Page for additional information.

The Cassini Equinox Mission is a joint United States and European endeavor. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter was designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team consists of scientists from the US, England, France, and Germany. The imaging operations center and team lead (Dr. C. Porco) are based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

Start mapping Tethys with the Cassini (grayscale) image data set


Iapetus: Voyager 1 & 2 (airbrush)

This image mosaic is one of several products created as the first step of cartography planning in support of the Cassini-Huygens Mission to Saturn & Titan. The data included in these mosaics were collected by both Voyager I and Voyager II missions. The Cassini spacecraft is targeting these moons and others during the mission. For more information about these mosaics, see the USGS Astrogeology Saturn Satellites - Voyager Global Image Maps project.

Start mapping Iapetus with the Voyager (grayscale) image data set



Iapetus: Cassini & Voyager (grayscale)

This global digital map was created using data taken during Cassini and Voyager spacecraft flybys of Iapetus. Images from NASA's Voyager mission fill the gaps in Cassini's coverage.

See the Cassini Imaging - Iapetus Map Page for additional information.

The Cassini Equinox Mission is a joint United States and European endeavor. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter was designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team consists of scientists from the US, England, France, and Germany. The imaging operations center and team lead (Dr. C. Porco) are based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

Start mapping Iapetus with the Cassini-Voyager (grayscale) image data set


Enceladus: Airbrush

This image product reflects a digital scan of an airbrush rendition of Enceladus. See additional reference information below.

Start mapping Enceladus with the Voyager airbrush image data set


References

U.S. GEOLOGICAL SURVEY 1982. Preliminary Pictorial map of Enceladus. U.S. Geol. Surv. Misc. Invest. Ser. Map I-1485, scale 1:5,000,000. (USGS Publication Citation)


Enceladus: Cassini

This mosaic incorporates images aquired during Cassini flybys of Enceladus and includes October and November 2009 imagery.

See the Cassini Imaging - Enceladus Map Page for additional information.

The Cassini Equinox Mission is a joint United States and European endeavor. The Jet Propulsion Laboratory, a division of the California Institute of Technology in Pasadena, manages the mission for NASA's Science Mission Directorate, Washington, D.C. The Cassini orbiter was designed, developed and assembled at JPL. The imaging team consists of scientists from the US, England, France, and Germany. The imaging operations center and team lead (Dr. C. Porco) are based at the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colo.

Start mapping Enceladus with the Cassini grayscale image data set


General Information About the Data Sets

Map-a-Planet (MAP) serves global cartographic digital planetary image maps that have been prepared by the USGS Astrogeology Research Program for NASA. Funding for these products and services was obtained from the NASA Planetary Cartography and Geologic Mapping Program and by the NASA Planetary Data System (PDS). The PDS Imaging Node hosts these services at the USGS. Image maps in MAP are commonly the products of detailed cartographic processing based on shaded relief maps and data from the Viking Orbiter, Clementine, Lunar Orbiter, Magellan, Voyager, and other missions.